Drummond

From ScotsWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
©Gaelic Themes Ltd.

Clan Drummond

Clan Drummond are a Scottish chiefly family . The name is rendered "Druimeanach" in modern Scottish Gaelic.

Origins

East of Stirling is the parish of Drymen and its name appears to have been derived from the Scottish Gaelic, dromainn which means a ridge or high ground. <ref>George Way of Plean and Romilly Squire, Scottish Clan and Family Encyclopedia, 120</ref> There is a traditional legend that states that the first nobleman to settle in Drymen was a Hungarian who accompanied Edgar Ætheling, heir to the English throne, on his escape from William the Conqueror and the Norman conquest of England. <ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 120</ref> These royal fugitives were welcomed by Malcolm III of Scotland, who married one of the royal sisters, Margaret, later Saint Margaret of Scotland.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 120</ref>

Middle Ages

The first chief of Clan Drummond to appear in written records was Malcolm Beg, Chamberlain of Lennox, who married a daughter of the Earl of Lennox, named Ada, before 1260. <ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 120</ref> Malcolm Beg was so called because of his small size. <ref>David Dorward, Dictionary of Scottish Surnames, 76</ref> Gilbert de Drumund of Dumbarton appears on the Ragman Rolls of 1296 swearing fealty to Edward I of England.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 120</ref> Malcolm de Drummond also swore fealty to Edward I at this time. Despite this the Drummonds were later awarded lands in Perthshire after the Battle of Bannockburn by Robert the Bruce.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 120</ref>

The Clan Drummond gained more land in 1345 when chief John Drummond married an heiress of the Montfichets and became John Drummond of Stobhall. John's sister Margaret Drummond married David II of Scotland but they had no children. In 1357, John's daughter, Annabella Drummond married John Stewart, Earl of Carrick and future High Steward of Scotland and King Robert III of Scotland. <ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 120</ref>

Sir John Drummond rose to power during the reigns of James III and James IV and was created 'Lord Drummond'.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 120</ref> He was imprisoned for a year for striking the Lyon King of Arms, who had slighted his grandson, the Red Earl of Angus. His daughter, Margaret was said to have been secretly married to King James IV. She and two of her sisters died at a meal but it is unknown if this was murder or simply food poisoning.

War of the Three Kingdoms

In 1610 James Drummond, 1st Lord Madderty built Innerpeffray Castle. <ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref> James Drummond, descendant of John, Margaret's father, became the first Earl of Perth in 1605.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref> His brother John became his successor on his death in 1611, and his sons became Earls of Perth like their father before them. Lord Drummond led his forces in support of the Covanenters against the Royalists at the Battle of Tippermuir in 1644. The chief of Clan Drummond, third Earl of Perth joined James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose in August 1645 and was taken prisoner at the Battle of Philiphaugh the following month.

Jacobitism

James Drummond, the fourth Earl was appointed High Chancellor of Scotland in June 1684 and openly declared himself a Catholic on the accession of James IIV, as a result he enjoyed high royal favour. <ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref> After James' fall in 1689 the Edinburgh Mob looted his town house and the Earl spent four years imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle. In 1693 he was freed and travelled to Rome.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref> In France, James awarded him the Order of the Garter and made him Duke of Perth. Drummond's brother, the Earl of Melfort, accompanied the king on campaign in Ireland.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref> Chief James Drummond, 2nd Duke of Perth joined the Jacobites during the Jacobite rising of 1715 and fought at the Battle of Sheriffmuir. He later fled in exile to France, and his estates were forfeited. <ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref>

James Drummond, 3rd Duke of Perth was born in France but returned to Scotland in 1734 to live at Drummond Castle with his mother. He was one of Charles Edward Stuart's closest commanders and he was involved in the Siege of Carlisle during the Jacobite rising of 1745. <ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref>

Clan Drummond fought as Jacobites at the Battle of Falkirk (1746) and the Battle of Culloden in 1746. At the Battle of Culloden James Drummond, 3rd Duke of Perth was shot and later died of his wounds, he was buried at sea from a boat which was en route to France.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref>His brother, Lord John Drummond, went into exile in France mwhile their cousin, William Drummond, 4th Viscount Strathallan, was killed during the battle. <ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref>

For their support of the Jacobite Stewarts through the risings of 1715 and 1745 the property and titles of the Drummonds were twice forfeited.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref>It was not until 1853, through an Act of Parliament, that the title of Earl of Perth and other forfeited titles were restored to George Drummond, who was also in the French peerage as a Baron.<ref>Plean, Squire, Encyclopedia, 121</ref>

Twentieth Century

James Eric Drummond (1876–1951), 16th Earl of Perth, served as the first secretary-general of the League of Nations. Lord Perth, a Catholic, was also British ambassador to Rome, from 1933 to 1939, and was chief advisor on foreign publicity at the Ministry of Information during World War II.

His successor, John David Drummond, was able to buy back the family home, Stobhall Castle, which has recently been sold again and its furniture auctioned. The current chief is John Eric Drummond, the 9th Earl of Perth, Lord Drummond, Lord Maderty and Lord Drummond of Cromlix, and Chief of the Name and Arms of Drummond, also Hereditary Steward of Strathearn, and de jure 18th Earl and 15th titular (Jacobite Peerage) Duke of Perth. The heir apparent is James David Drummond, Viscount Strathallan.

References

<references/>